top of page

References.....just the beginning


Note:  References below are not a complete research list but are a starting point and back up data for items generally reviewed within this site.  


Statements specifically throughout this individual website have not been evaluated by Health Canada. This information contained within this website is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease process.


Big Sky Ventures can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of Sea Buckthorn. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

​The suggested uses of sea buckthorn products are presented here solely for their educational value. We cannot anticipate all conditions under which this information and our products may be used.

​We accept no responsibility for results obtained by the application of this information or the safety and suitability of our products, either alone or in combination with other products.

​Users are advised to make their own tests to determine safety and suitability of each such product or product combinations for their own purposes. Unless otherwise agreed in writing, we sell the products without warranty, and buyers and users assume all responsibility and liability for loss or damage arising from the handling and use of our products, whether used alone or in combination with other products.

Health section references:  (see below this section for general references).




1.Rosch D, et al., Structure-antioxidant efficiency relationships of phenolic compounds and their contribution to the antioxidant activity of sea buckthorn juice, Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 2004; 51(15): 4233-4239.

2.Li TSC and Schroeder WR, Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides): A multipurpose plant, Horticultural Technology 1996; 6(4): 370-378.

3.Agrawala PK and Goel HC, Protective effect of RH-3 with special reference to radiation induced micronuclei in mouse bone marrow, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 2002 May; 40 (5): 525-530.

4.Chen Y, et al., Study on the effects of the oil from Hippophae rhamnoides in hematopoiesis, Chinese Herbal Drugs 2003; 26(8): 572-575.

5.Yu Let et al., Effects of Hippophae rhamnoides juice on immunologic and antitumor functions, 1993 Acta Nutrimenta Sinica 15(3): 280-283.

6.Zhong Fei, et al., Effects of the total flavonoid of Hippophae rhamnoides on nonspecific immunity in animals, Shanxi Medical Journal 1989; 18(1): 9-10.

7.Zhang Maoshun, et al., Treatment of ischemic heart diseases with flavonoids of Hippophae rhamnoides, Chinese Journal of Cardiology 1987; 15(2): 97-99.

8.Xiao Z, et al., The inhibitory effect of total flavonoids of hippophae on the activation of NF-kappa ß by stretching cultured cardiac myocytes, Sichuan University Medical Journal 2003; 34(2): 283-285.

9.Cheng J, et al., Inhibitory effects of total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides on thrombosis in mouse femoral artery and in vitro platelet aggregation, Life Sciences 2003; 72(20): 2263-2271.

10.Zhou Yuanpeng, et al., Study on the effect of hippophae seed oil against gastric ulcer, 1998 Institute of Medical Plants Resource Development, The Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing.

11.Xing J, et al., Effects of sea buckthorn seed and pulp oils on experimental models of gastric ulcer in rats, Fitoterapia 2002; 73(7-8): 644-650.

12.Gao ZL, et al., Effect of sea buckthorn on liver fibrosis: a clinical study, World Journal of Gastroenterology 2003; 9(7): 1615-1617.

13.Cheng T, et al., Acute toxicity of flesh oil of Hippophae rhamnoides and its protection against experimental hepatic injury, Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1990; 15(1): 45-47, 64.

14.Yang Baoru, et al., Effects of dietary supplementation of sea buckthorn oils on fatty acids in patients with atopic dermatitis, 1999 Proceedings of the International Sea Buckthorn Congress, ICRTS, Beijing.

15.Ianev E, et al., The effect of an extract of sea buckthorn on the healing of experimental skin wounds in rats, Dermatology 1995; 48(3): 30-33.


General References

1. Sea buckthorn Factsheet. Al Oliver, pp. 1–4, May 2001.

2. Alam Z. Chemical and nutritional constituents of sea buckthorn juice. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2004;3(2):99–106.

3. Zhao Y, Wu F. Sea buckthorn flavonoids and their medical value. Hippophae. 1997;10(1):39–41.

4. Alam Z. Important therapeutic uses of sea buckthorn (Hippophae): a review. Journal of Biological Sciences. 2004;4(5):687–693.

5. Cheng J, Kondo K, Suzuki Y, Ikeda Y, Meng X, Umemura K. Inhibitory effects of total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides L on thrombosis in mouse femoral artery and in vitro platelet aggregation. Life Sciences. 2003;72(20):2263–2271. [PubMed]

6. Johansson AK, Korte H, Yang B, Stanley JC, Kallio HP. Sea buckthorn berry oil inhibits platelet aggregation. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2000;11(10):491–495. [PubMed]

7. Narayanan S, Ruma D, Gitika B, et al. Antioxidant activities of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) during hypoxia induced oxidative stress in glial cells. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 2005;278(1-2):9–14. [PubMed]

8. Geetha S, Ram MS, Mongia SS, Singh V, Ilavazhagan G, Sawhney RC. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of leaf extract of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) on chromium(VI) induced oxidative stress in albino rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003;87(2-3):247–251. [PubMed]

9. Geetha S, Sai Ram M, Singh V, Ilavazhagan G, Sawhney RC. Effect of seabuckthorn on sodium nitroprusside-induced cytotoxicity in murine macrophages. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy. 2002;56(9):463–467. [PubMed]

10. Chauhan AS, Negi PS, Ramteke RS. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of aqueous extract of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seeds. Fitoterapia. 2007;78(7-8):590–592. [PubMed]

11. Xing J, Yang B, Dong Y, Wang B, Wang J, Kallio HP. Effects of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed and pulp oils on experimental models of gastric ulcer in rats. Fitoterapia. 2002;73(7-8):644–650. [PubMed]

12. Xu X, Xie B, Pan S, Liu L, Wang Y, Chen C. Effects of sea buckthorn procyanidins on healing of acetic acid-induced lesions in the rat stomach. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007;16(1):234–238. [PubMed]

13. Halis S, Mehmet EB, Mehmet K, Fatih A, Ahmet K, Akçahan G. The effects of Hippophae rhamnoides L. extract on ethanol-induced gastric lesion and gastric tissue glutathione level in rats: a comparative study with melatonin and omeprazole. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2001;33(2):77–81.

14. Ganju L, Padwada Y, Singha R, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) leaves. International Immunopharmacology. 2005;5:1675–1684. [PubMed]

15. Geetha S, SaiRam M, Singh V, Ilavazhagan G, Sawhney RC. Anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory properties of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides)—an in vitro study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2002;79:373–378. [PubMed]

16. Larmo PS, Alin JA, Salminen EK, Kallio HP, Tahvonen RL. Effects of Sea buckthorn berries on infections and inflammation. Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007;27:1–3.

17. Padwad Y, Ganju L, Jain M. Effect of leaf extract of Sea buckthorn on lipopolysaccharide induced inflammatory response in murine macrophages. International Immunopharmacology. 2006;6:646–652. [PubMed]

18. Teng BS, Lu YH, Wang ZT, Tao XY, Wei DZ. In vitro anti-tumor activity of isorhamnetin isolated from Hippophae rhamnoides L. against BEL-7402 cells. Pharmacological Research. 2006;54(3):186–194. [PubMed]

19. Armen N, Rafael M. Sea-buckthorn juice protects mice against genotoxic action of cisplatin. Experimental Oncology. 2004;26(2):153–155. [PubMed]

20. Padmavathi B, Upreti M, Singh V, Rao AR, Singh RP, Rath PC. Chemoprevention by Hippophae rhamnoides: effects on tumorigenesis, phase II and antioxidant enzymes, and IRF-1 transcription factor. Nutrition and Cancer. 2005;51(1):59–67. [PubMed]

21. Bhatia A, Arora S, Nagpal A, Singh B, Ahuja PS. Evaluation of in vitro antimutagenic activity of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides Linn.) in Ames assay. Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine. 2007;2(8)

22. Li Y, Liu H. Prevention of tumour production in rats fed aminopyrine plus nitrite by sea buckthorn juice. IARC Scientific Publications. 1991;(105):568–570. [PubMed]

23. Zhang Z, Qiu D. Anti-cancer studies from Russia. Hippophae. 1995;8(4):38–40.

24. Ren L, Yang J, et al. Observation: anti-mutation and anti immune-suppresser properties from sea buckthorn seed oil. Hippophae. 1992;5

25. Gao ZL, Gu XH, Cheng FT, Jiang FH. Effect of Sea buckthorn on liver fibrosis: a clinical study. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2003;9(7):1615–1617. [PubMed]

26. Lipkan GM, Oliĭnyk OA. Hepatoprotective effect of the sea buckthorn-and-pinks oil. Lik Sprava. 2000;(6):96–99. [PubMed]

27. Liu C, Xu J, Ye CQ, Huang C. Effects and comparison of seed oil and sarcocarp oil of Hippophae rhamnoides on rats with experimental hepatocirrhosis. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi. 2006;31(13):1100–1102. [PubMed]

28. Xu M, Sun X, Cui J. The medicinal research and development of Sea buckthorn

29. Wang B, Feng Y, Yu Y, Zhang H, Zhu R. Effects of total flavones of Hippophae Rhamnoids L (Sea buckthorn) on Cardiac Function and Hemodynamic in Healthy Human Subjects. Rich Nature Nutroceutical Laboratories.

30. Pang X, Zhao J, Zhang W, et al. Antihypertensive effect of total flavones extracted from seed residues of Hippophae rhamnoides L. in sucrose-fed rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2008;117(2):325–331. [PubMed]

31. Gupta A, Kumar R, Pal K, Banerjee PK, Sawhney RC. A preclinical study of the effects of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaf extract on cutaneous wound healing in albino rats. International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds. 2005;4(2):88–92. [PubMed]

32. Vijayaraghavan R, Gautam A, Kumar O, et al. Protective effect of ethanolic and water extracts of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) against the toxic effects of mustard gas. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2006;44(10):821–831. [PubMed]

33. Ruan A, Min H, Meng Z, Lü Z. Protective effects of seabuckthorn seed oil on mouse injury induced by sulfur dioxide inhalation. Inhalation Toxicology. 2003;15(10):1053–1058. [PubMed]

34. Wang ZY, Luo XL, He CP. Management of burn wounds with Hippophae rhamnoides oil. Journal of Southern Medical University. 2006;26(1):124–125. [PubMed]

35. Gupta A, Kumar R, Pal K, Singh V, Banerjee PK, Sawhney RC. Influence of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) flavone on dermal wound healing in rats. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 2006;290(1-2):193–198. [PubMed]

36. Upadhyay NK, Kumar R, Mandotra SK, et al. Safety and healing efficacy of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed oil on burn wounds in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2009;47(6):1146–1153. [PubMed]

37. Fu SC, Hui CWC, Li LC, et al. Total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides promotes early restoration of ultimate stress of healing patellar tendon in a rat model. Medical Engineering and Physics. 2005;27(4):313–321. [PubMed]

38. Purushothaman J, Suryakumar G, Shukla D, et al. Modulatory effects of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) in hypobaric hypoxia induced cerebral vascular injury. Brain Research Bulletin. 2008;77(5):246–252. [PubMed]

39. Varshney AC. Sea buckthorn (Hippphae sp.) for soft tissue repair in animal

40. Goel HC, Prasad J, Singh S, Sagar RK, Prem Kumar I, Sinha AK. Radioprotection by a herbal preparation of Hippophae rhamnoides, RH-3, against whole body lethal irradiation in mice. Phytomedicine. 2002;9(1):15–25. [PubMed]

41. Shukla SK, Chaudhary P, Kumar IP, et al. Protection from radiation-induced mitochondrial and genomic DNA damage by an extract of Hippophae rhamnoides. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. 2006;47(9):647–656. [PubMed]

42. Goel HC, Kumar IP, Samanta N, Rana SVS. Induction of DNA-protein cross-links by Hippophae rhamnoides: implications in radioprotections and cytotoxicity. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 2003;245(1-2):57–67. [PubMed]

43. Yang B, Kalimo KO, Tahvonen RL, Mattila LM, Katajisto JK, Kallio HP. Effect of dietary supplementation with sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seed and pulp oils on the fatty acid composition of skin glycerophospholipids of patients with atopic dermatitis. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2000;10(11):622–630. [PubMed]

44. Basu M, Prasad R, Jayamurthy P, Pal K, Arumughan C, Sawhney RC. Anti-atherogenic effects of seabuckthorn (Hippophaea rhamnoides) seed oil. Phytomedicine. 2007;14(11):770–777. [PubMed]

45. Cao Q, Qu W, Deng Y, Zhang Z, Niu W, Pan Y. Effect of flavonoids from the seed and fruit residue of Hippophae rhamnoides L. on glycometabolism in mice. Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials. 2003;26(10):735–737. [PubMed]

46. Guliyev VB, Gul M, Yildirim A. Hippophae rhamnoides L.: chromatographic methods to determine chemical composition, use in traditional medicine and pharmacological effects. Journal of Chromatography B. 2004;812(1-2):291–307. [PubMed]




bottom of page